Similar regions emerge, but then you get multiple cultures, and then the boundaries between those cultures are thick. The reason they are thick is that if were not thick, people would interact across those cultures and they would become similar.
So, thick boundaries: people near each other will either be exactly the same or differ by a lot.
If the people interact across these cultures the boundaries disappear.
The research is made by The World Values Survey which is a global research project that explores people’s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have.
There are two major dimensions of cross cultural variation in the world:
1) Traditional values versus Secular-rational values and
2) Survival values versus Self-expression values.
Traditional values emphasize the importance of religion, parent-child ties, deference to authority and traditional family values. People who embrace these values also reject divorce, abortion, euthanasia and suicide. These societies have high levels of national pride and a nationalistic outlook. Secular-rational values have the opposite preferences to the traditional values. These societies place less emphasis on religion, traditional family values and authority. Divorce, abortion, euthanasia and suicide are seen as relatively acceptable. Industrialization tends to bring a shift from traditional values to secular-rational ones. Survival values place emphasis on economic and physical security. It is linked with a relatively ethnocentric outlook and low levels of trust and tolerance. Self-expression values give high priority to environmental protection, growing tolerance of foreigners, gays and lesbians and gender equality, and rising demands for participation in decision-making in economic and political life.