Why states fail and how to rebuild them ?!

Reading of the day -> The Economist: Why states fail and how to rebuild them
What we can learn from countries that failed to build themselves?!


– Few things matter more than fixing failed states. Broadly defined, state failure provides “a general explanation for why poor countries are poor”. Life in a failed or failing state is short and harsh.

– Lawless regions, such as the badlands of Pakistan and Yemen, act as havens for terrorists.[…] In the most extreme form of state failure, in places like Somalia, the central government does not even control the capital city. In milder forms, as in Nigeria, the state is far from collapse but highly dysfunctional and unable to control all of its territory. Or, as in North Korea today or China under Mao Zedong, it controls all of its territory but governs in a way that makes everyone but a tiny elite much worse off.

– The key to understanding state failure is “institutions, institutions, institutions”.

– States are not wretched and unstable because of geography—if so, how to explain the success of landlocked Botswana? Nor is culture the main culprit: if so, South Koreans would not be more than 20 times richer than North Koreans. Some societies have “inclusive institutions that foster economic growth”; others have “extractive institutions that hamper it”.

The world’s newest country, South Sudan has received billions of dollars of aid and the advice of swarms of consultants since seceding from Sudan in 2011, but has failed to build any institutions worthy of the name. South Sudan failed to build institutions that transcended tribal loyalties or curbed the power of warlords. There are plenty of government buildings, including state ministries of education, culture and health. But none of them does much. Nowhere in South Sudan does the state do what it is supposed to.

The fighting becomes tribal because warlords recruit by stirring up ethnic tension so that their kinsmen will rally to them. This creates a vicious circle. Lacking protection from other institutions, people seek it from their own tribe. Rather than demand evenhanded government, they back tribal leaders, knowing that they will steal and hoping they will share the spoils with their kin.

– “The politics of the vast majority of societies throughout history has led, and still leads today, to extractive institutions.” These tend to last because they give rulers the resources to pay armies, bribe judges and rig elections to stay in power. These rulers adopt bad policies not because they are ignorant of good ones but on purpose. Letting your relatives embezzle is bad for the nation but great for your family finances.

– But failed states are not doomed to stay that way. Even states that have collapsed completely can be rebuilt. Liberia and Sierra Leone were stalked by drug-addled child soldiers a decade and a half ago; now both are reasonably calm. The key is nearly always better leadership: think of how China changed after Mao died. Many bad rulers continue deliberately to adopt bad policies, but they can be—and often are—replaced with better ones.

Afghanistan case. Afghanistan’s president since 2014, Mr Ghani is a former academic and author of a book called “Fixing Failed States”. His TED talk on fixing broken states has been viewed 750,000 times. Now he is trying to put his own theories into practice.

Teza socialistului Igor Dodon despre capitalism!

       Odată cu apariția în atenția publicului larg suspiciuni legate de plagiere a tezei de doctor a economistului Igor Dodon, care după cariera sa economică fulminantă (de la diferite poziții în cadrul Bursei de Valori a Moldovei, ajungând în poziția de Ministru al Economiei) a luat-o pe drumul politicii cu viziuni socialiste, cu care de altfel, ajunge președintele ales al Republicii Moldova, să tragem o privire asupra lucrării sale de doctor în economie.
După cum ne arată titlul lucrării dlui Igor Dodon, leaderul socialiștilor și-a luat titlu de doctor pe o temă destul de capitalistă pe care o promova pentru implementare la nivel național – “Managementul tranzacțiilor cu titluri financiare derivate și implementarea acestora în Republica Moldova“, 2002, după cum a menționat și însuși autorul – “o temă foarte serioasă”. Materialul complet îl găsiți aici.
Câteva notițe asupra lucrării: (more…)

Schimbarea pînă la capăt pe piața de capital

Capital Market in Moldova

Un subiect foarte important este ridicat pe blogul lui Dionisie Comerzan, lecturând articolul “Schimbările nu trebuie să aibă loc doar la nivel teoretic, dar și nivel practic” – locul piaței de capital în economia națională.

Acest domeniu este aproape inexistent și este ignorat aproape în totalitate în Republica Moldova. Dacă într-o stat civilizat acesta este “o oglindă a economiei”, păi atunci în Moldova acesta apare la vedere doar când vine vorba de atacurile raider. Nu e nevoie șă fii mare specialist ca să-ți dai seama că Bursa de Valori a Moldovei este de fapt aproape inactivă, ineficientă și de fapt nu își îndeplinește rolul său de alocare a resurselor financiare în economie. E suficient să intri pe pagina web a acesteia – http://www.moldse.md și să-ți dai seamă de nivelul de subdezvoltare al acesteia.

Guvernul nu este deloc interesat de acest sector,unde ar trebui să fie cu mult mai activ . Cele mai importante active ale acestuia nu sunt vândute prin ofertă publică la bursă (ceea ce ar fi o normalitate într-un stat civilizat) – cea mai  transparentă metodă care ar permite atragerea  investițiilor atît străine, cât și locale,  și nu ar cauza scandaluri interminabile. Dar din păcate se preferă tot felul de metode și comisii dubioase, care duc la numeroase întrebări privind modul de privatizare al companiilor cu capital majoritar de stat.

Sistemul de învățământ pe acest domeniu este practic nul. Ministerul Educației trebuie să contribuie și el mai activ la dezvoltarea unei culturi financiare începând cu nivelele primare de învățământ.

Sistemul fiscal în domeniul pieței de capital urmează a fi reformatat pentru a motiva investițiile în instrumente finaciare.

Dezbateri serioase asupra dezvoltării acestui sector sunt absolut imperative. Bursa, organele statului, intermediarii de pe piața bursieră ar trebui să acționeze mai activ pentru revitalizarea acestui sector – un segment de alternativă pieței bancare ce va permite investitorilor și companiilor să evalueze și să ia decizii mai raționale și eficiente.

Eco ideas: Anat Admati – “Five Years of Financial Non-Reform”

Today reading is Anat Admati – “Five Years of Financial Non-Reform”

Anat Admati, Professor of Finance and Economics at the Stanford Graduate School of Business

Five years after the collapse of Lehman Brothers triggered the largest global financial crisis since the Great Depression, outsize banking sectors have left economies shattered in Ireland, Iceland, and Cyprus. Banks in Italy, Spain, and elsewhere are not lending enough. China’s credit binge is turning into a bust. In short, the world’s financial system remains dangerous and dysfunctional.

Worse, despite years of debate, no consensus about the nature of the financial system’s problems – much less how to fix them – has emerged. And that appears to reflect the banks’ political power.

Regulations everywhere appear to be based on the false notion that banks should have “just enough” equity. Equity is not scarce for viable banks, and the “science” of complex risk weights and stress tests is a harmful illusion. Instead, regulation should seek to force banks’ investors to bear much more of their own risk, and thus to care much more about managing it, in order to limit the collateral damage of their excessive borrowing.

Some say that banks are inherently special, because they allocate society’s savings and create liquidity. In fact, banks have become special mainly in their ability to get away with so much gambling at others’ expense. Nothing about financial intermediation justifies allowing banks to distort the economy and endanger the public as much as they do.

Unfortunately, despite the enormous harm from the financial crisis, little has changed in the politics of banking. Too many politicians and regulators put their own interests and those of “their” banks ahead of their duty to protect taxpayers and citizens. We must demand better.

How Culture Varies and where Moldova is?!

The research is made by The World Values Survey which is a global research project that explores people’s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have.

There are two major dimensions of cross cultural variation in the world:
1) Traditional values versus Secular-rational values and
2) Survival values versus Self-expression values.

Traditional values emphasize the importance of religion, parent-child ties, deference to authority and traditional family values. People who embrace these values also reject divorce, abortion, euthanasia and suicide. These societies have high levels of national pride and a nationalistic outlook.
Secular-rational values have the opposite preferences to the traditional values. These societies place less emphasis on religion, traditional family values and authority. Divorce, abortion, euthanasia and suicide are seen as relatively acceptable. Industrialization tends to bring a shift from traditional values to secular-rational ones.
Survival values place emphasis on economic and physical security. It is linked with a relatively ethnocentric outlook and low levels of trust and tolerance.
Self-expression values give high priority to environmental protection, growing tolerance of foreigners, gays and lesbians and gender equality, and rising demands for participation in decision-making in economic and political life.

Life satisfaction and GDP? sau Aduc banii fericirea?

Cum influenţează banii fericirea? Influenţează creşterea economică sau un PIB mai mare fericirea?

Higher GDP, higher growth give us happines?

Life satisfaction

Odată ce ridici oamenii de sub nivelul sărăcii, aceasta îi face fericiţi.

Odată ce sunt bogaţi, mai bogaţi nu are acelaşi efect.

Lifting people out of poverty, clearly makes the people happy.

When you already rich, a little more doesn’t make you happy so much.